This initial case report of severe hepatitis attributed to chaparral use was published 7 years after its occurrence in 1983. A young woman developed a severe viral hepatitis-like syndrome 3 months after starting chaparral and had a temporary improvement on lowering the dose, and subsequent worsening with increasing it. Serum liver tests were not available from these periods of dose adjustment, but the clinical history suggested an association of disease severity with dosage and a positive rechallenge. When she presented to medical evaluation, she had evidence of severe hepatitis with jaundice and marked serum aminotransferase elevations along with ascites and prolongation of the prothrombin time. She began to improve between 1 and 2 weeks after stopping chaparral. A liver biopsy documented the severity of the liver injury (submassive necrosis with an estimated 60% loss of parenchyma). Symptoms and minor serum enzyme elevations persisted for at least 4 months after stopping, with full documentation of resolution when she was seen a year after stopping chaparral. The component of chaparral leaf extracts that is responsible for hepatotoxicity is not known; features of the disease suggest that the liver injury is idiosyncratic rather than a direct toxic effect.
It is important to distinguish between complete and partial tears as it guides treatment decisions. Classic physical exam findings of complete tears include: antecubital pain and ecchymosis, non-palpable distal biceps tendon (abnormal hook test), proximal retraction of the biceps muscle, and weakness with supination and flexion. A partial tear often has a normal hook test but has pain with the examination. An MRI is most appropriate for confirmation of a partial distal biceps rupture, while an MRI is not always required for a complete tear if the exam is conclusive.
The reference by Vardakas et al reports a series of patients initially treated with conservative management for their partial biceps tendon tears. They were all then treated with operative fixation secondary to recalcitrant pain. They note significant improvement in pain at an average of 31 months in all 7 patients without any complications noted.
5-7reps is BEST for mass building hands down! If you do a little research you will find that this is the optimal rep range for building mass. This will trigger your fast twitch to increase gains. You say you stopped doing that rep range because you had terrible form. Well guess what. that means you drop some weight until you can do 5-7 with GOOD form! It is too easy to be able to push up more then you should by throwing other muscles into the exercise. Practice good form and do the amount of weight that you can with good form for 5-7 reps…