Anabolic reaction entropy

In vertebrate animals, brown fat tissue's color is due to abundant blood vessels and capillaries. White fat tissue, on the other hand, is specialized for fat storage and contains relatively few blood vessels or capillaries. Brown fat cells have a specialized protein that dissipates the proton-motive force across the mitochondrial membranes. Which of the following might be the function of the brown fat tissue?
A) to increase the rate of oxidative phosphorylation from its few mitochondria
B) to allow the animals to regulate their metabolic rate when it is especially hot
C) to increase the production of ATP
D) to allow other membranes of the cell to perform mitochondrial functions
E) to regulate temperature by converting most of the energy from NADH oxidation to heat

Photosynthesis and respiration are complementary processes ( Figure 2-41 ). This means that the transactions between plants and animals are not all one way. Plants, animals, and microorganisms have existed together on this planet for so long that many of them have become an essential part of the others' environments. The oxygen released by photosynthesis is consumed in the combustion of organic molecules by nearly all organisms. And some of the CO 2 molecules that are fixed today into organic molecules by photosynthesis in a green leaf were yesterday released into the atmosphere by the respiration of an animal—or by that of a fungus or bacterium decomposing dead organic matter. We therefore see that carbon utilization forms a huge cycle that involves the biosphere (all of the living organisms on Earth) as a whole, crossing boundaries between individual organisms ( Figure 2-42 ). Similarly, atoms of nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulfur move between the living and nonliving worlds in cycles that involve plants, animals, fungi, and bacteria.

A vitamin is an organic compound needed in small quantities that cannot be made in cells. In human nutrition , most vitamins function as coenzymes after modification; for example, all water-soluble vitamins are phosphorylated or are coupled to nucleotides when they are used in cells. [18] Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD + ), a derivative of vitamin B 3 ( niacin ), is an important coenzyme that acts as a hydrogen acceptor. Hundreds of separate types of dehydrogenases remove electrons from their substrates and reduce NAD + into NADH. This reduced form of the coenzyme is then a substrate for any of the reductases in the cell that need to reduce their substrates. [19] Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide exists in two related forms in the cell, NADH and NADPH. The NAD + /NADH form is more important in catabolic reactions, while NADP + /NADPH is used in anabolic reactions.

Anabolic reaction entropy

anabolic reaction entropy


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