Biogen idec steroids

Barry Strasnick, MD, FACS  Chairman, Professor, Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Eastern Virginia Medical School

Barry Strasnick, MD, FACS is a member of the following medical societies: Alpha Omega Alpha , American Academy of Facial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery , American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery , American Auditory Society , American College of Surgeons , American Medical Association , American Tinnitus Association , Ear Foundation Alumni Society, Norfolk Academy of Medicine , North American Skull Base Society , Society of University Otolaryngologists-Head and Neck Surgeons , Vestibular Disorders Association , Virginia Society of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Jeffrey P Callen, MD  Professor of Medicine (Dermatology), Chief, Division of Dermatology, University of Louisville School of Medicine

Jeffrey P Callen, MD is a member of the following medical societies: Alpha Omega Alpha , American Academy of Dermatology , American College of Physicians , American College of Rheumatology

Disclosure: Serve(d) as a speaker or a member of a speakers bureau for: Biogen/IDEC (Discussion of Drug reactions in relationship to an agent for Multiple Sclerosis)<br/>Received income in an amount equal to or greater than $250 from: Abbvie; Lilly; Argenx; Amgen <br/>Received honoraria from UpToDate for author/editor; Received honoraria from JAMA Dermatology for associate editor; Received royalty from Elsevier for book author/editor; Received dividends from trust accounts, but I do not control these accounts, and have directed our managers to divest pharmaceutical stocks as is fiscally prudent from Stock holdings in various trust accounts include some pharmaceutical companies and device makers for i inherited these trust accounts; for: Celgene; Pfizer; 3M; Johnson and Johnson; Merck; Abbott Laboratories; AbbVie; Procter and Gamble; Amgen.

There is a lack of reliable evidence of the effectiveness of rFVIIa for non-hemophilic indications.  Levi and colleagues (2005) performed a systematic review on the safety and effectiveness of rFVIIa in patients with or without coagulation disorders.  They concluded that more randomized controlled clinical trials are needed to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of rFVIIa for patients without a pre-existent coagulation disorder and with severe bleeding.  In the meantime, off-labeled use of rFVIIa may be considered in patients with life-threatening bleeding.  This is in agreement with the observations of Lam et al (2005) who stated that until further prospective controlled data are available, it is recommended that conventional intervention for prevention and control of hemorrhage in non-hemophiliac patients should remain the standard of care.  More recently, O’Connell and colleagues (2006) reported that the use of rFVIIa is associated with severe adcerse events (AEs) especially when it is used for off-labeled indications.  They analyzed 431 incidents of AEs reported to the FDA during the first 5 years after the approval of NovoSeven.  They noted that most reported thromboembolic AEs followed the use of the drug for off-labeled indications (n = 151) and occurred in the arterial and venous systems, often resulting in serious morbidity and mortality.  The majority of complications occurred within 24 hours of taking the drug.  These investigators concluded that randomized controlled studies are needed to ascertain the safety and effectiveness of rFVIIa in patients without hemophilia.

Medications are modestly effective at decreasing the number of attacks in RRMS and in reducing the accumulation of brain lesions, which is measured using gadolinium - enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). [5] Interferons and glatiramer acetate are roughly equivalent, reducing relapses by approximately 30% and their safe profile make them the first-line treatments. [5] Nevertheless, not all the patients are responsive to these therapies. It is known that 30% of MS patients are non-responsive to Beta interferon. [39] One of the factors related to non-respondance is the presence of high levels of interferon beta neutralizing antibodies . Interferon therapy, and specially interferon beta-1b, induces the production of neutralizing antibodies, usually in the second 6 months of treatment, in 5 to 30% of treated patients. [5] [40] Moreover, a subset of RRMS patients with specially active MS, sometimes called "rapidly worsening MS" are normally non-responders to immunomodulators and are treated with either mitoxantrone or natalizumab. [41]

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biogen idec steroids

Medications are modestly effective at decreasing the number of attacks in RRMS and in reducing the accumulation of brain lesions, which is measured using gadolinium - enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). [5] Interferons and glatiramer acetate are roughly equivalent, reducing relapses by approximately 30% and their safe profile make them the first-line treatments. [5] Nevertheless, not all the patients are responsive to these therapies. It is known that 30% of MS patients are non-responsive to Beta interferon. [39] One of the factors related to non-respondance is the presence of high levels of interferon beta neutralizing antibodies . Interferon therapy, and specially interferon beta-1b, induces the production of neutralizing antibodies, usually in the second 6 months of treatment, in 5 to 30% of treated patients. [5] [40] Moreover, a subset of RRMS patients with specially active MS, sometimes called "rapidly worsening MS" are normally non-responders to immunomodulators and are treated with either mitoxantrone or natalizumab. [41]

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