A new antifibrotic product, avotermin (Juvista, Renovo; Manchester, United Kingdom) has been extensively studied. Avotermin is derived from human recombinant TGF-beta3. This product has shown promise in a phase I trial and 2 phase II trials completed in the United Kingdom. In these studies, wounds treated with avotermin showed a statistically significant improvement in scar appearance, with a response rate of greater than 70%. After analyzing safety data on more than 1500 human subjects, avotermin does not seem to have safety or tolerability issues for use in the prevention or reduction of scarring.
For severe cases, the keloid can surgically excised and given x-ray treatments to the site immediately afterwards, usually the on the same day. This works in about 85% of the most severe cases. Electron beam radiation can be used, which will not go deep enough to affect internal organs. Orthovoltage radiation is more penetrating and slightly more effective. There have not been any reports of this causing any form of cancer in many years of use, but it is very expensive. Silicone pads and creams are sold over the counter for use on keloids. These do benefit hypertrophic scars but will not cure a true keloid. However, they can reduce pain, swelling and itching from a keloid. They usually take 3 months or more to work.