Non steroid hormones

The most commonly used AAS in medicine are testosterone and its various esters (but most commonly testosterone undecanoate , testosterone enanthate , testosterone cypionate , and testosterone propionate ), [53] nandrolone esters (most commonly nandrolone decanoate and nandrolone phenylpropionate ), stanozolol , and metandienone (methandrostenolone). [1] Others also available and used commonly but to a lesser extent include methyltestosterone , oxandrolone , mesterolone , and oxymetholone , as well as drostanolone propionate , metenolone (methylandrostenolone), and fluoxymesterone . [1] Dihydrotestosterone (DHT; androstanolone, stanolone) and its esters are also notable, although they are not widely used in medicine. [54] Boldenone undecylenate and trenbolone acetate are used in veterinary medicine . [1]

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See also hormone and autoimmunity , hormone and immune system , neuroimmunology neuroendocrine-immunology , sex hormones

Laws and Penalties:  Concerns over growing illegal AAS abuse by teenagers, and many of the just discussed long-term effects, led Congress in 1991 to place the whole AAS class of drugs into Schedule III of the Controlled Substances Act (CSA).  Under this legislation, AAS are defined as any drug or hormonal substance, chemically and pharmacologically related to T (other than estrogens, progestins, and corticosteroids) that promotes muscle growth.  The possession or sale of AAS without a valid prescription is illegal.  Since 1991, simple possession of illegally obtained AAS carry a maximum penalty of one year in prison and a minimum $1,000 fine if this is an individual’s first drug offense.  The maximum penalty for trafficking (selling or possessing enough to be suspected of selling) is five years in prison and a fine of $250,000 if this is the individual’s first felony drug offense.  If this is the second felony drug offense, the maximum period of imprisonment and the maximum fine both double.  While the above listed penalties are for federal offenses, individual states have also implemented fines and penalties for illegal use of AAS.  State executive offices have also recognized the seriousness of AAS abuse and other drugs of abuse in schools. For example, the State of Virginia enacted a law that will allow student drug testing as a legitimate school drug prevention program (48, 49).

Erythropoietin (EPO): A 165 amino acid glycoprotein hormone (glycoproteins consist of several sugar molecules linked with a protein molecule). EPO stimulates erythrocyte (red blood cell) production in the bone marrow, boosting the blood's ability to carry oxygen. Studies have shown that significant amounts of EPO resist digestion and survive to reach receptors in the intestinal tract. One raw milk-drinking athlete was wrongly accused of blood-doping, so there's at least anecdotal evidence of EPO's activity in our systems!

We have also noted that 24-hour urinary estrogens can be a sensitive monitor of liver detoxification capability. Elevated urinary estrogens in normally-cycling women may indicate a history of exposure to liver stresses such as excessive environmental organic chemicals. Interventions intended to improve liver function result in a gradual normalization of the abnormal estrogen levels. Thus, measurement of urinary estrogens can give insight into other aspects of physiology. This phenomenon is also noted in peri- or post-menopausal women who have previously taken Premarin, and have switched to triple-estrogen replacement with less-than-optimal symptom relief.

Non steroid hormones

non steroid hormones

Erythropoietin (EPO): A 165 amino acid glycoprotein hormone (glycoproteins consist of several sugar molecules linked with a protein molecule). EPO stimulates erythrocyte (red blood cell) production in the bone marrow, boosting the blood's ability to carry oxygen. Studies have shown that significant amounts of EPO resist digestion and survive to reach receptors in the intestinal tract. One raw milk-drinking athlete was wrongly accused of blood-doping, so there's at least anecdotal evidence of EPO's activity in our systems!

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