Parthenocarpy is the growth of ovary into seedless fruit in the absence of pollination and fertilization. It may occur naturally or can be induced artificially by exogenous application of hormones or their enhanced endogenous level. Parthenocarpy improves the yield, quality and processing attributes of vegetable crops like cucumber, eggplant and watermelon, where seed is a limiting factor during consumption. This trait proved highly useful to develop fruits under environmental conditions that are unfavorable for successful pollination and fertilization, particularly in green house cultivation and especially in cross-pollinated crops. It is an established fact that phytohormones play important role in fruit setting and their genetic manipulation can lead to seedlessness. Apical shoot is considered as source of inhibitors preventing fruit growth in the absence of stimulus like pollination or application of phytohormones. The exploitation of biotechnological tools can further enhance its utility for the benefit of mankind. Therefore, present review is focused on factors and potential of parthenocarpy in vegetable crops.