Another challenge is the insularity of the many disciplines involved in clinical and research training. This insularity threatens to impede progress at precisely the time when rich opportunities for interdisciplinary work exist. For example, the following disciplines are likely to have some component of training relevant to the mission of this report: Psychiatry, pediatrics, developmental and behavioral pediatrics, adolescent medicine, nursing, epidemiology, developmental neuroscience, cognitive and behavioral neuroscience, social work, clinical psychology, developmental psychology, and developmental psychopathology. Other fields that can contribute significantly include public health, anthropology, and economics. Because of the rigors and traditions within each area, it can be extremely difficult to create training programs that cross these boundaries.